Where is Your Focus?

Written by Katelynn Brown

“The real message is because attention is under siege more than it has ever been in human history, we have more distractions than ever before, we have to be more focused on cultivating the skills of attention. It’s about using the devices smartly but having the capacity to concentrate as you need to, when you want to. The more you can concentrate the better you’ll do on anything, because whatever talent you have, you can’t apply it if you are distracted.” –Daniel Goleman

 

Attention and focus are two aspects of our everyday lives. In any activity, learning experience, or action that is presented throughout the day we demonstrate our ability to utilize focus and attention. Our ability to demonstrate and utilize focus and attention can be impacted by distractions. These distractions can come in multiple forms and can affect our ability to focus and concentrate. Many times we can become distracted and we do not even acknowledge that it has occurred. Especially in the 21st century, technology has become both a benefit and a hindrance to student attention and focus. Many times throughout the day we become distracted by cellphones and computers without even realizing it. In the classroom, it is important that educators guide students in developing and improving their ability to ignore distractions. As students embrace attention and focus, they are better able to learn and retain information in the classroom.

Can I Strengthen My Focus?

In the classroom, there are multiple techniques that educators can use to help students avoid distractions and strengthen their focus. These methods can include a variety of activities and practices that teachers can model, demonstrate, and incorporate into the classroom. Each of these methods can assist the students in strengthening and improving their knowledge of focus and selective attention. The integration of these instructional methods can truly influence the academic performance of students in the classroom by strengthening their ability to focus and diminishing their tendency to become distracted.

1.    Teach students what staying focused looks like

Throughout the day, teachers should model and explain what staying focused looks, sounds, and feels like. In the classroom, teachers can use interactive modeling. Interactive modeling is an effective way to show students how to stay focused. This instructional method not only shows students how to do a multitude of particular skills but also shows them why it is important to do it well. Teachers must explicitly explain to students why staying focused is important and then must work to model those behaviors to students. During this time, teachers model exactly what their eyes, mouths, hands, and feet should be doing when students are focused on a multitude of tasks.

2.   Get students up and moving

As people, but especially as children, we are naturally inclined to move and be active. Many times in the classroom, teachers forget that students are active individuals and thus our expectations are not realistic. Teachers can get students up and moving during instruction by including “Brain Breaks” into instruction. Teachers can increase the effectiveness of student learning by incorporating Brain breaks throughout the day. Brain breaks can include using yoga moves, playing a quick game, allowing students to walk around the classroom or wiggle, or using websites such as GoNoodle. As you take this time to allow students to move around, students will refocus and foster well-being and academic performance.

3.    Teach students how to refocus

One important way to help students build stamina is to give them strategies for getting back on track when they lose focus. One way to help students learn to refocus is for teachers to have students practice doing multiple things at once. As teachers give students multiple things at once, students are training their brains to focus on what they are doing. Through continues practice, students are less likely to lose focus. Another technique would be for teachers to teach students how to take small breaks without disrupting their concentration. When students notice that they have lost focus, teachers can show students how to use different techniques to help regain focus. These breaks can include breathing techniques, walking around, or taking time to move around.

4.   Help students build endurance

Students can improve and strengthen their ability to focus by building endurance. This can be done by having students think about focus related to something they are interested in. Teachers can have students think about areas that interest them and how that knowledge is developed through continuous focus and practice. Students can build endurance in any area through patience, practice, and time. In order for students to strengthen their endurance, teachers must provide students with opportunity and time to practice this skill. Through repeated practice, students will be able to effectively ignore distractions and utilize focus.

5.    Adjust instructional time frames

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During instruction, sometimes teachers find that students are not able to maintain focus and stay on task. When these difficulties occur in the classroom, this would be the time to consider breaking content into smaller time intervals. Teachers need to remember that students can only concentrate on material for a limited amount of time. During instruction it might be necessary for teachers to adjust time frames if students are demonstrating difficulty focusing. Teachers should be cautious of lengthy instruction and lectures. While presenting instruction, it is important that teachers work to ensure that students remain involved in the material and active in the lesson. Teachers can do this by involving hands on instruction and questions into the lesson.

6.   Play memory games

Memory games helps students to strengthen their focus in a fun way. Through the use of these games, students are able to concentrate when challenged. In the school day, teachers can integrate these games into the regular instructional time. Teachers can also encourage this use of memory games during student’s free time as well. Games such as red-light-green-light, I-Spy, and Simon Says challenge students to focus and pay attention. Through these games, students are able to repeatedly practice focus through the use of a fun and interactive game.

7.    Breakdown tasks

This technique requires the teacher to be responsive and aware of the needs of students in the classroom. Teachers need to assess how students are performing in the classroom. Teachers need to remember that learning is not a one size fits all method. If students seem to demonstrate difficulty with the instructional material, teachers should attempt to differentiate instruction. Teachers can do this by breaking material into smaller chunks. Teachers should break up instruction into smaller chunks, as students complete chunks of instruction the students can take a break, and then return to the next chunk of information and instruction. With the implementation of this strategy, students may complete tasks faster.

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In the classroom, there are various techniques that can be used to help students strengthen and improve their ability to focus. Teachers can help students to strengthen this skill with repeated practice of these various techniques. As students continue to practice focus and attention, the skill will become more automatic and students will begin to do it naturally. As students improve their ability to focus and pay selective attention, students can improve their learning experience and retain more information.

 

Citations:

Cox, J. (n.d.). Teaching strategies to help students stay focused. Retrieved 2017, from http://www.teachhub.com/teaching-strategies-help-students-stay-focused

Reeves, D. (2015, July 10). 7 ways to increase a student’s attention span. Retrieved 2017, from  https://www.edutopia.org/discussion/7-ways-increase-students-attention-span

Schwartz, K. (2013, December 5). Age of distraction: Why it’s crucial for students to learn to focus. Retrieved 2017, from https://ww2.kqed.org/mindshift/2013/12/05/age-of-distraction-why-its-crucial-for-students-to-learn-to-focus/

Umstatter, K. (2014, January 3). Teaching students to stay focused. Retrieved 2017, from https://www.responsiveclassroom.org/teaching-students

How Do I Focus?

Written by Katelynn Brown

Focus, it’s a concept that we all think that we are familiar with. When asked to define what focus is, many people would say that focus is to pay attention to something in particular. Though this is true, focus is much more than that. As individual, when we say we think we are using focus, we are actually demonstrating selective attention. Selective attention is when we consciously focus on something by skillfully ignoring distracting stimuli. Through the use of selective attention, we are able to effectively ignore different types of distraction. Research has determined that attention is the first step in the learning process. The ability of students to focus and orient attention impacts what is information is gained and retained to memory. Research has also found that the ability to students to ignore distractions and focus on learning has strong associations to academic performance. As educators, it is important that we help students to think about focusing to encourage selective attention and limit distractions in the classroom.

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Can I Direct My Focus?

Take a second and look at your surroundings, notice all of the possible distractions that are around you. Have they affected your ability to pay attention and stay focused? Everyday students are constantly surrounded by multiple forms of distractions that challenge their ability to focus and to learn. Student’s ability to focus is constantly being challenged and tested. As students find themselves surrounded by conversation, technology, and various other distractions, students are challenged to focus and successfully ignore all other distractions that are present. For many, this concept is easier said than done. For students it can be difficult to simply focus on one activity rather than attempting to multitask. It is important that as educators, we are able to help direct student thinking and help students demonstrate selective attention in order to ignore all of the distractions that are present. By helping students to utilize selective attention, educators can better gear students to learn, gain information, and retain this information to memory. Educators can demonstrate for students different methods to improve focus and attention in the classroom. The next step, is to determine how educators can help students to increase the use of selective attention in the classroom.

Think About How You Focus:

While in the classroom, educators want students to be hard at work, engaged in the lesson, and focused on the material that is being presented. During class instruction, educators might find that students are distracted or focused on something either than the instruction. These distractions can come in multiple forms in the classroom. Educators can try to limit this distraction by explicitly instruction students on how to regulate attention. Educators can provide students with cognitive strategies that can guide students to understand how they can consciously direct and maintain their attention on learning tasks. Through regular practices, these cognitive strategies can improve students’ ability to manage their individual learning. By providing students with this instruction, educators can encourage and self-directed learning in the classroom.

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1. Shine the Spotlight On Attention

In this activity, educators introduce the subject of attention by asking students to share examples of being extremely focused on an activity that the student was able to block out distractions around them. These examples can include reading a book, watching a movie, practicing an instrument, or practicing a sport. In the way that students provide this attention in the examples that they have given, students can purposefully focus their attention to learning in the classroom. Based on this information, work with students to brainstorm ways that regulating attention can improve learning. For example brainstormed ideas might include:

  • Paying attention to a lesson instead of being distracted by distractions in the hallway or playground.
  • Switching from learning one subject to another or one class to another.
  • Leaving personal disagreements or problems outside of the classroom to limit distractions during instruction.
  • Completing a homework assignment before turning on TV, using cellphone, or playing a video game.
  • Limiting or “turning off” worries about not doing well on an assignment or test in order to stay focused and remember material.
  • Identifying what is most important and focusing solely on what is most important.

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2. Focusing attention is a skill that can be improved

At any stage, students can develop their attention for learning through regular practice and training. Educators should provide students with good reasons for training their attention. Educators should remind students that people who can take charge of their attention are better at remembering things and figuring out what new information means and how they can use it. Students who are able to develop this knowledge, are better at metacognition and higher-order thinking processes. In the classroom, educators must guide and encourage students as they work to improve and strengthen their ability to focus attention.

3. Be Responsive and Pace Your Teaching

Within the classroom, the attention span of individual students is going to vary drastically. Educators should vary the instructional times that are provided in the classroom based on the needs of students. Especially when teaching younger students, educators should provide instruction is shorter amounts of time during lessons and learning activities. In the classroom, teachers can utilize the acronym CRAVE as a way to remember five other strategies for keeping students’ attention focused on learning:

  • Build curiosity for learning with “teasers” that get students interested in the lesson. Educators should incorporate anticipatory sets into the classroom that peak student interest and curiosity.
  • Look for ways to make lessons relevant to students’ lives. Educators need to incorporate authentic text, discussion, instruction, and activities into the classroom. By providing meaningful and authentic text and instructions students are better able to become engaged and interested in the material.
  • Ask questions to engage students in learning and inquiry. By asking students questions, educators are ensuring that the students are involved in the lesson and are able to be active learners during instruction.
  • Remember to include variety in the lesson. Educations should use a mix of learning activities. These variety helps to keep students engaged and interested in the material.
  • Evoke emotions. Emotions can be distracting, they can also be used to enhance attention by making a lesson or learning activity more interesting.
  • Educators can incorporate and utilize each of these instructional practiced into the classroom. The integration of these instructional methods can help students to become aware of their own thinking and their ability to focus during instruction. Each of these instructional methods and activities, can help to increase student attention and focus while in the classroom. As students are able to strengthen their attention skills, students will be better able to learn information and to retain the information that they have learned.

 

 

References:

Wilson, D. (2015, January 5). Strategies for getting and keeping the brain’s attention.

Retrieved 2017, from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/strategies-getting-keeping-

            brains-attention-donna-wilson-marcus-conyers

Focus Tips for Students: How to Effectively Ignore Irrelevant Information

Written by Erin Miller

“I need to stop procrastinating and just focus” a sentence said by almost every student when under a time crunch studying for finals, writing a paper, or just doing math homework. The ability to “just focus,” is actually a lot harder than we think, specifically with your cell phone sitting right next to you, the people at the table two feet away, and the music blaring in your headphones. Focus, also known as selective attention, is “the process of focusing on a particular object in the environment for a certain period of time. Attention is a limited resource, so selective attention allows us to tune out unimportant details and focus on what really matters” (Cherry, 2017). Research has shown that there are ways to work on this ability and improve our focus. Here are some tips to help your brain focus a little harder on the task at hand:

1.     Put the cell phone away.

Phonehand

First things first, humans are innately bad at multitasking. The basis of focus, or attention, is the ability to ignore distracting stimuli. Choosing to leave your cell phone in the other room while you study, is already a huge step towards improving your ability to focus. Moving your attention away from your school work to answer a text does not seem like a big deal, but is actually a huge detriment to the ability to get your attention back to the work you were doing. According to a study conducted in 2013, “students who were not using their cell phones wrote down 62 percent more information in their notes, took more detailed notes, were able to recall more detailed information from the lecture, and scored a full letter grade and a half higher on a multiple choice test than those students who were actively using their mobile phones” (Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013). Turn your phone off while you study, it is the most effective first step.

2.     Close out tabs you are not using.

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Similar to your cell phone buzzing on the table next to you, keeping tabs open on your computer that you are not using, are unnecessary distracters. Whether the tab is your Facebook profile, email inbox, or a full shopping cart on Amazon, keeping the tab open does not help your brain focus on the paper you are trying to write, or the formulas you are trying to memorize. Closing out tabs that you are not presently using, will allow you to get the work done faster, and then you can go back to shopping.

3.     Take breaks, get fresh air.

If you are one of those people who says, “I am going to sit in this chair until I know everything I need to know for this test,” you might actually be hindering your studying ability! Decide before you start studying, when you will take a break, and when you will return to studying. Of course, the studying portion needs to be longer then the break portion, but the breaks are important. In her book, Find Your Focus Zone: An Effective New Plan to Defeat Distraction and Overload, Lucy Jo Palladino, Ph.D., says a “quick walk outdoors” is an effective short break. Getting outside, taking some deep breaths, and thinking about anything besides the homework you are doing, can be very effective to sustain your focus (Tartakovsky, 2016).

4.     Create a to-do list.

todolist

A lot of the stress we get from school, especially during finals week, comes from having several assignments that are all due on the same day. Before you begin to worry about when you will have time to get everything done, make a list of each of your assignments, when they are due, and plan out when you will complete them. Sometimes, even just writing down the assignments you have can help you relax, and realize that what you have to do is not as much as you think. Multitasking, has “a negative effect because of brain plasticity or “the way the brain changes in response to experience.” When you’re multitasking, “Your brain is changing itself to favor divided attention and fragmented thought, rather than concentration that resists distraction and rebounds from interruption” (Tartakovsky, 2016). Once you plan out when you will complete each task, you will not have to worry about all the other responsibilities, and can focus on them, one at a time.

References

Kendra Cherry | Reviewed by Steven Gans, MD. “What Is Selective Attention?” Verywell, www.verywell.com/what-is-selective-attention-2795022.

Kuznekoff, J., & Titsworth, S. (2013). The Impact of Mobile Phone Usage on Student Learning. Communication Education, 62(3). pp. 233-252.

Tartakovsky, Margarita. “12 Foolproof Tips for Finding Focus.” Psych Central, 17 July 2016, psychcentral.com/lib/12-foolproof-tips-for-finding-focus/.

 

 

Where is your focus?

Written by Abigail Koetting

 

Cell phones often pose as distractions to our every day lives, especially when we are trying to focus on completing a task and a notification goes off to distract us. Cell phone notifications are meant to get our attention, so their tone will break our focus on purpose. Most ringtones have a frequency that is most sensitive to human ears, similar to a horn, fire alert, or bicycle bell- all of which are noises that get our attention quickly because of their acoustic variability (Roer, Bell, & Buchner, 2014). Whether it’s an incoming phone call, Snapchat, or Facebook notification, simply the sound of the tone causes us to attention-switch between our mobile devices and the task at hand.

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Advertised frequently are the dangers in using our mobile devices while driving. Driving requires our attention and focus, especially in more dangerous conditions such as snow or fog. However, what about cell phones in the classroom? How do ringing phones affect our focus and short-term memory? Roer, Bell and Buchner (2014) studied fifty-one college students to determine how the ringing of a cell phone affects one’s short-term memory, and if others’ cell phone ringtones affect an individual more than their own cell phone ringing. Part one deals with determining if the cell phone tone’s interference with short-term memory lessens with more occurrences. Part two then deals with determining which ringtones are more disruptive, ours or another person’s?

In this study for each trial, eight digits were showed consecutively and randomly on a computer screen to participants for them to remember. Auditory distractors (a participant’s own ringtone or one from a partner, ringing along with office noise such as talking, footsteps, or typing noises) were played over headphones while the participant was remembering the list of numbers.

Each participant completed two different blocks of trials. The first block, the training block, had eight quiet trials and eight irrelevant sound trials. During the irrelevant sound trials, a different set of office noises were played. Then the second block, the experimental block, had eight trails in each of the three auditory conditions. The first auditory condition was quiet with two irrelevant sound conditions, the second auditory condition was the partner’s ringtone, and the third auditory condition was the participant’s own ringtone.

Experimenters noted the current ringtones of the participants’ phones. Two participants were paired together to be each other’s partner. Participants were not matched with each other if they had identical ringtones, so that the acoustic differences could be accounted for when each other’s ringtones played.

Since this test was looking at short-term memory, the recall test was given right after the list of numbers was shown. A succession of eight question marks were displayed on the computer screen, and participants had to use the keyboard to enter the numbers in the same order they saw them in before; there was an option for ‘I don’t know’. When scoring, the participant only got the answer correct if they typed the same number in the same exact serial position from the sequence.

Results showed that the participant’s own ringtone was just as disruptive as the partner’s ringtone, both affecting serial recall quite drastically. Additionally, participants were more likely to become accustomed to less regular sounds such as office noise and talking rather than more regular sounds. According to Roer, Bell and Buchner (2014), more regular sounds, like a cell phone ringing, may be due to non-attentional processes. On the contrary, irregular sounds cause attentional capture. As the individual is subjected to these irregular sounds more frequently, the attentional capture weakens over time. This is why the office noise and talking could be tuned out more easily, and the cell phone ringing could not. The office noise and talking were irregular noises, causing the attentional capture, which weakens with more exposure. The cell phone ringing though, always disrupts ongoing activities because of their ability to capture individuals’ attention and grasp their focus.

In conclusion, it is evident that cell phones take our focus away from the task at hand as soon as a notification is heard. We do not become accustomed to these alerts the more we are exposed to them, as we might with typical office noise in the background each day. Our cell phones are just as attention grabbing as someone else’s, so it is important to keep your cell phone on silent when performing tasks that require high attention and focus.

Reference

Roer JP, Bell R, & Buchner A (2014) Please silence your cell phone: Your ringtone captures

other people’s attention. Noise & Health, 16(68):34-39.

 

Focus Roundup 2

Written by Michelle Onofrio

Entrepreneur

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Photo Retrieved From: https://leadershipmanagement.com.au/losing-time-tips-for-effective-time-management/

 

In our hectic culture, it can seem like staying focused on one task is impossible. Here, Gretchen Rubin lessens the intimidation of maintaining a quiet focus by offering 11 practical suggestions that can be applied, little by little, to our daily lives.

Fox News – Lifestyle

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What levels of inattention are normal? How much is too much? Jessica Girdwain outlines 5 reasons why we are losing our focus, suggesting what we can do for ourselves, as well as when we should seek the help of a doctor. 

Psychology Today focus2

Why is our inability to focus so prevalent, especially when we are overwhelmed with a myriad of tasks? Why are we so easily distracted by our technological devices? Offering insight from his book, Your Brain at Work, David Rock answers these questions by taking a look into what regions of our brain are responsible for this phenomena.

Calm Clinic

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How is our ability to concentrate affected by our anxiety? For helpful, wholesome tips to improve concentration by identifying distractions, look here.

 

Forbes

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Do we attribute our difficulty with concentration to the inundation of interruptions and opportunities we are bombarded with in our environment? While these problems are undoubtedly significant, Dr. Edward M. Hallowell argues that there are deeper causes present within our human psychology.

Focus Roundup

Written by Anna Aylward

This month we have focused on focus! This article includes some interesting resources about the science of focus and attention, the reasons behind the problems, and simple methods that we can use to improve.

The Science of Focus Control by Belle Beth Cooper

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This blog post discusses the two brain systems that help you control your focus, and ways that you can rest them in order to focus better when you really need it. The description of System 1 and System 2 in the brain relevant to focus is interesting, but while it mentions meditation as one method to improve focus, the research on this shows mixed results, and needs further exploration!

Bilingual Brains Have Better Attention and Focus from Science Alert

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Photo Retrieved From: https://www.almostfearless.com/picking-bilingual-baby-names/

This article review written by David Nield summarizes a study performed that studied a previously found correlation between attention and bilingualism, which showed that people switching back and forth between languages improves focus on tasks, more than just the ability to block out distractions.

Three-Day Plan to Increase Your Focus from Psychology Today

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Photo Retrieved From: https://leadershipmanagement.com.au/losing-time-tips-for-effective-time-management/

 

This article, written by Joseph Cardillo, the author of the book Can I Have Your Attention? describes how decreased attention can affect more aspects of our life than we realize, and describes some easy strategies to combat the reasons that we lose focus that we don’t even notice.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keeping Focus in Focus

Written by Dr. Althea Bauernschmidt

This month CALM will be focusing on selective attention. Selective attention is the skill of ignoring distracting stimuli. In other words, selective attention is your ability to focus on one task and ignore things not related to that task. Last month we talked about a related concept, multitasking. The better you are at selective attention, at focusing, then the less likely you are to multitask. You won’t switch attention back and forth between distractions and the task at hand if you have the ability to ignore the distractions in the first place.

 

One of the major misconceptions about selective attention is that you can’t change it – that some people are just good at focusing and others are just bad and there’s nothing you can do to change that. While it’s certainly true that some of us are blessed with better selective attention than others (full disclosure: I am unfortunately NOT one of them…), it’s not true that we can not improve our selective attention skills. Research shows that selective attention can improve with training for children, adolescents, young adults, and older adults (Karbach & Verhaegen, 2014; Karbach & Unger, 2014). However, while you can improve your selective attention, you should be aware of the limitations of training. When we talk about selective attention we’re talking about selective attention as a domain general ability – your ability to focus on reading a book, responding to an email, or having a conversation with the person in front of you. You see the biggest gains in training for selective attention in domain specific abilities, however. In other words, you can get better at reading a book in a noisy environment, like a bus or subway, but that doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll get better at focusing on responding to that email once you get into work. There is some hope for small domain general improvements, but by and large the biggest effects are seen with domain specific improvements (Karback & Verghaegen, 2014).

Cognitive psychologists call the ability to see gains in one domain after training in another, transfer. In general, across most cognitive abilities like memory and attention, it’s very difficult to get transfer across domains. This means you should be wary of any program claiming to improve your memory in general or your attention in general. While you can greatly improve at the tasks you are training on, it’s very unlikely that you will improve on those cognitive abilities across the board. For a review of the research on brain training games, see this interesting article from the Association for Psychological Science.

If you want to improve your selective attention, practice at the task you are having trouble focusing on (Diamond, & Ling, 2016). For example, if you’re a student who finds it difficult to study in a noisy environment, you should practice studying in increasingly noisy or distracting environments. Studying in a quiet space will have the short-term effect of allowing you to focus for that study session, but in the long term it won’t help you deal with noisy cafes, roommates, or rude library patrons. If you have trouble focusing on a work assignment and blocking out email messages and text notifications, practice ignoring them. Set a timer that lets you know when you can take a break from your task and check email and your other notifications. Work towards longer and longer blocks of focus time on your task. The more you practice ignoring distractions, the easier it will be.

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If you haven’t already been convinced that you should improve your selective attention – whether it is your ability to focus in lecture, focus on the subway, or just focus on your email – there’s a lot of research on the negative effects of poor focus. For example, research on mind-wandering shows that people perform worse on tasks when they are distracted by mind-wandering (Unsworth & Robinson, 2016) and feel less confident in their responses compared to those who are not distracted (Sauer & Hope, 2016). These issues are compounded when the task you’re supposed to be focusing on is a complex task (Adler & Benbunan-Fich). Getting distracted while folding laundry has less disastrous consequences than losing focus while studying or driving a car.

For the rest of this month we’ll be exploring the topic of selective attention, or focus, and how it affects students and teachers in the classroom. We’ll also be discussing how cell phones and other devices hurt our ability to focus and what steps we can take to avoid these harmful distractions.

 

References:

Adler, R. F., & Benunan-Fich, R. (2014). The effects of task difficulty and multitasking on performance. Interacting with Computers, 27(4), 430-439

Diamond, A., & Ling, D. (2016). Conclusions about interventions, programs, and approaches for improving executive functions that appear justified and those that, despite much hype, do not. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 34-48.

Karbach, J., & Unger, K. (2014). Executive control training from middle childhood to adolescence. Frontiers in Psychology, 5: 390.

Karbach, J., & Verhaeghen, P. (2014). Making working memory work: A meta-analysis of executive control and working memory training in younger and older adults. Psychological Science, 25(11), 2027-2037.

Sauer, J., & Hope, L. (2016). The effects of divided attention at study and reporting procedure on regulation and monitoring for episodic recall. Acta Psychologica, 169, 143-156.

Unsworth, N., & Robinson, M. K. (2016). The influence of lapses of attention on working memory capacity. Memory & Cognition, 44, 188-196.

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